Learn how to ask questions correctly

Alex Granovsky

gran@classic.chem.msu.su

Dear Sanya,

Dealing with the wavefunctions that are the exact solutions

of Schroedinger equation, one can uniquely define one-body

density matrix using pretty simple formulas of Quantum Mechanics.

However, Quantum Chemistry is quite a different case :-)

Here we are forced to use incomplete basis sets and various

approximate methods...

There are computational methods that do have (approximate)

wavefunctions, e.g., HF, CI, MCSCF. Here, to have wavefunction

means that the expressions for energy used within these methods

are exactly equivalent to the expectation value of Hamiltonian

operator calculated using those approximate wavefunctions.

Some other methods do not have (even approximate!) wavefunctions

at all, e.g., DFT; TDHF and TDDFT; MP2, MP3, MP4,...,MPn; CCSD and

any other CC-like methods; EOM-CC etc... This means that the

approximate wavefunction either does not exist at all

(e.g. in DFT, TDHF and TDDFT), or, alternatively, the energy

evaluated within the framework of these methods using some

approximation to "wavefunction", is not equal to the expectation

value of Hamiltonian calculated using this "wavefunction" (e.g.,

all MPn and CC-like methods).

The methods that have approximate wavefunction also have well-defined

expectation-value type one-electron density matrix.

It is defined using standard definition of Quantum Mechanics.

This density matrix has lots of interesting properties, e.g.,

occupation numbers are bracketed between 0 and 2 (for the total

density matrix). The expectation value of any one-electron property

is simply the trace of density matrix multiplied on the operator

representing this property.

However, even in this simplest case, it is possible to define

density matrix of another type - the so-called response-type

density matrix. It is defined so that the derivative of energy

with respect to any one-electron perturbation (x*V) is equal

to the trace of this density matrix times V:

dE

-- = tr(D*V)

dx

These two definitions are identical for exact solutions of Schroedinger

equation. However, for approximate solutions (e.g. working

with incomplete basis sets that is typical for QC) they differs.

More precisely, for those methods where the energy is fully

optimized with respect to molecular orbitals (HF, MCSCF,

complete CI) they are identical, otherwise they are different.

For example, for any incomplete CI (e.g. CISD) one can define both

expectation value and response-type density matrices. One can

calculate dipole moments using these two density matrices and

get two different answer - the first one is the expectation

value of dipole operator, the second one is the derivative of

CISD energy with respect to the applied electric field.

The response-type density does not have many useful properties of

the "real", expectation value density matrix. For example,

occupation numbers can be arbitrary. However, it does not require

any wavefunction to be defined! One just need to obtain expression

for derivative of total energy with respect to arbitrary one-particle

perturbation - and this can be done for virtually any computational

method, including DFT, MPn, any CC-like, EOM-CC and TD-HF/TD-DFT.

This density matrix is exactly what is usually called "relaxed

density". Typically, it naturally becomes available as the

byproduct during molecular gradients calculations.

Finally, one can define some approximations for density matrix,

even for methods without wavefunction. E.g. for MP2, one can

define approximation to the true density matrix that is correct

up to the second order of PT. For TDHF and TDDFT, one can define

approximation that resembles expectation value density matrix for

CI singles (CIS). This approximation (and there are some good

reasons for this) is what is called "unrelaxed density".

To summarize, one cannot directly compare dipole moments calculated

using relaxed and unrelaxed densities. However, with Firefly, one

can calculate dipole moment as the derivative of energy wrt. to

electric field using runtyp=ffield. This quantity can be directly

compared with dipole moment calculated using relaxed density.

Hope this helps.

Regards,

Alex Granovsky

On Tue Sep 22 '09 6:49pm, sanya wrote

-------------------------------------

>Dear All,

>When calculating excited state properties, such as dipole moments etc., some programs give "relaxed density excited state properties", while others give "unrelaxed density excited state properties". What is the difference between them? As far as I understand, Firefly calculates properties using unrelaxed density (at least, in TDHF and TDDFT). Is it correct to compare, say, dipole moments calculated using relaxed and unrelaxed densities calculated by different programs (with the same functional and basis set, of course)?

*[ This message was edited on Sun Oct 4 '09 at 11:24pm by the author ]*

Sun Oct 4 '09 11:24pm

This message read